PM Glossary / Project Management Glossary

#TermShort Definition
1Acceptance Test-Driven Development ATDDA method of collaboratively creating acceptance test criteria that are used to create acceptance tests before delivery begins.
2Accepted DeliverablesProducts, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria.
3AccuracyWithin the quality management system, accuracy is an assessment of correctness.
4Acquire ResourcesThe process of obtaining team members, facilities, equipment, materials, supplies, and other resources necessary to complete project work.
5AcquisitionObtaining human and material resources necessary to perform project activities. Acquisition implies a cost of resources, and is not necessarily financial.
6ActivityA distinct, scheduled portion of work performed during the course of a project.
7Activity AttributesMultiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
8Activity DurationThe time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity. See also duration.
9Activity Duration EstimatesThe quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity.
10Activity ListA documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
11Activity-on-NodeSee precedence diagramming method PDM.
12Actual CostThe realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period. See also budget at completion BAC, earned value EV, estimate at completion EAC, estimate to complete ETC, and planned value PV.
13Actual DurationThe time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete.
14Adaptive Life CycleA project life cycle that is iterative or incremental.
15AgileA term used to describe a mindset of values and principles as set forth in the Agile Manifesto.
16Agile CoachAn individual with knowledge and experience in agile who can train, mentor, and guide organizations and teams through their transformation.
17Agile Life CycleAn approach that is both iterative and incremental to refine work items and deliver frequently.
18Agile ManifestoThe original and official definition of agile values and principles.
19Agile MindsetA way of thinking and behaving underpinned by the four values and twelve principles of the Agile Manifesto.
20Agile PractitionerA person embracing the agile mindset who collaborates with like-minded colleagues in cross-functional teams. Also referred to as agilist.
21Agile PrinciplesThe twelve principles of agile project delivery as embodied in the Agile Manifesto.
22Agile Unified ProcessA simplistic and understandable approach to developing business application software using agile techniques and concepts. It is a simplified version of the Rational Unified Process aka RUP.
23AgilistSee Agile Practitioner.
24AgreementsAny document or communication that defines the initial intentions of a project. This can take the form of a contract, memorandum of understanding MOU, letters of agreement, verbal agreements, email, etc.
25Alternative AnalysisA technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select the options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.
26Analogous EstimatingA technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. See also bottom-up estimating, parametric estimating, program evaluation and review technique PERT, and three-point estimating.
27Analytical TechniquesVarious techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
28Anti-PatternA known, flawed pattern of work that is not advisable.
29AssumptionA factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demonstration.
30Assumption LogA project document used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project life cycle.
31Attribute SamplingMethod of measuring quality that consists of noting the presence or absence of some characteristic attribute in each of the units under consideration.
32AuthorityThe right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or give approvals.
33Automated Code Quality AnalysisThe scripted testing of code base for bugs and vulnerabilities.
34BacklogSee {Product Backlog}.
35Backlog RefinementThe progressive elaboration of project requirements and/or the ongoing activity in which the team collaboratively reviews, updates, and writes requirements to satisfy the need of the customer request.
36Backward PassA critical path method technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date. See also forward pass.
37BaselineThe approved version of a work product that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
38Basis of EstimatesSupporting documentation outlining the details used in establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges, and confidence levels.
39Behavior-Driven DevelopmentA system design and validation practice that uses test-first principles and English-like scripts.
40BenchmarkingBenchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned products, processes, and practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
41Benefits Management PlanThe documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project or program.
42Bid DocumentsAll documents used to solicit information, quotations, or proposals from prospective sellers.
43Bidder ConferenceThe meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
44Blended AgileTwo or more agile frameworks, methods, elements, or practices used together such as Scrum practiced in combination with XP and Kanban Method.
45BlockerSee Impediment.
46Bottom-Up EstimatingA method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure WBS.
47Broken CombRefers to a person with various depths of specialization in multiple skills required by the team. Also known as Paint Drip. See also T-shaped and I-shaped.
48BudgetThe approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity.
49Budget at CompletionThe sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed. See also actual cost AC, earned value EV, estimate at completion EAC, estimate to complete ETC, and planned value PV.
50BufferSee reserve.
51Burndown ChartA graphical representation of the work remaining versus the time left in a timebox.
52Burnup ChartA graphical representation of the work completed toward the release of a product.
53Business CaseA documented economic feasibility study used to establish validity of the benefits of a selected component lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities.
54Business Requirement DocumentsListing of all requirements for a specific project.
55Business ValueThe net quantifiable benefit derived from a business endeavor. The benefit may be tangible, intangible, or both.
56CadenceA rhythm of execution. See also {Timebox}.
57Cause and Effect DiagramA decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause.
58ChangeA modification to any formally controlled deliverable, project management plan component, or project document.
59Change ControlA process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected. See also change control board and change control system.
60Change Control BoardA formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions. See also change control and change control system.
61Change Control SystemA set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled. See also change control and change control board.
62Change Control ToolsManual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.
63Change LogA comprehensive list of changes submitted during the project and their current status.
64Change Management PlanA component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of its authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.
65Change RequestA formal proposal to modify a document, deliverable, or baseline.
66Checklist AnalysisA technique for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness.
67ChecksheetsA tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.
68ClaimA request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer, or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract, such as for a disputed change.
69Claims AdministrationThe process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
70Close Project or PhaseThe process of finalizing all activities for the project, phase, or contract.
71Closing Process GroupThe processes performed to formally complete or close a project, phase, or contract.
72Collect RequirementsThe process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
73Collective Code OwnershipA project acceleration and collaboration technique whereby any team member is authorized to modify any project work product or deliverable, thus emphasizing team-wide ownership and accountability.
74ColocationAn organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
75Communication MethodsA systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
76Communication ModelsA description, analogy, or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
77Communication Requirements AnalysisAn analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
78Communication Styles AssessmentA technique to identify the preferred communication method, format, and content for stakeholders for planned communication activities.
79Communication TechnologySpecific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
80Communications Management PlanA component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.
81Conduct ProcurementsThe process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
82Configuration Management PlanA component of the project management plan that describes how to identify and account for project artifacts under configuration control, and how to record and report changes to them.
83Configuration Management SystemA collection of procedures used to track project artifacts and monitor and control changes to these artifacts.
84ConformanceWithin the quality management system, conformance is a general concept of delivering results that fall within the limits that define acceptable variation for a quality requirement.
85ContingencyAn event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project that may be accounted for with a reserve.
86Contingency ReserveTime or money allocated in the schedule or cost baseline for known risks with active response strategies. See also management reserve and project budget.
87Contingent Response StrategiesResponses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs.
88Continuous DeliveryThe practice of delivering feature increments immediately to customers, often through the use of small batches of work and automation technology.
89Continuous IntegrationA practice in which each team member’s work products are frequently integrated and validated with one another.
90ContractA contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
91Contract Change Control SystemThe system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
92ControlComparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
93Control AccountA management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement.
94Control ChartA graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
95Control CostsThe process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and manage changes to the cost baseline.
96Control LimitsThe area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline or mean of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart, which reflects the expected variation in the data. See also specification limits.
97Control ProcurementsThe process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, making changes and corrections as appropriate, and closing out contracts.
98Control QualityThe process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality management activities to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete, correct, and meet customer expectations.
99Control ResourcesThe process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned, as well as monitoring the planned versus actual utilization of resources and performing corrective action as necessary.
100Control ScheduleThe process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project schedule and manage changes to the schedule baseline.
101Control ScopeThe process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
102Corrective ActionAn intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan. See also preventive action.
103Cost AggregationSumming the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project’s WBS or for a given cost control account.
104Cost BaselineThe approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
105Cost Management PlanA component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. See also project management plan.
106Cost of QualityAll costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraisal of the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failure to meet requirements.
107Cost Performance IndexA measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost. See also schedule performance index SPI.
108Cost Plus Award Fee ContractA category of contract that involves payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus an award fee representing seller profit.
109Cost Plus Fixed Fee ContractA type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs allowable costs are defined by the contract plus a fixed amount of profit fee.
110Cost Plus Incentive Fee ContractA type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs allowable costs are defined by the contract, and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
111Cost VarianceThe amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost. See also schedule variance SV.
112Cost-Benefit AnalysisA financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
113Cost-Reimbursable ContractA type of contract involving payment to the seller for the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing the seller’s profit.
114CrashingA technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.
115Create WBSThe process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
116CriteriaStandards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
117Critical PathThe sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration. See also critical path activity and critical path method.
118Critical Path ActivityAny activity on the critical path in a project schedule. See also critical path and critical path method.
119Critical Path MethodA method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. See also critical path and critical path activity.
120Cross-Functional TeamA team that includes practitioners with all the skills necessary to deliver valuable product increments.
121Crystal Family of MethodologiesA collection of lightweight agile software development methods focused on adaptability to a particular circumstance.
122Daily ScrumA brief, daily collaboration meeting in which the team reviews progress from the previous day, declares intentions for the current day, and highlights any obstacles encountered or anticipated. Also known as daily standup.
123DataDiscrete, unorganized, unprocessed measurements or raw observations.
124Data Analysis TechniquesTechniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
125Data DateA point in time when the status of the project is recorded.
126Data Gathering TechniquesTechniques used to collect data and information from a variety of sources.
127Data Representation TechniquesGraphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information.
128Decision Tree AnalysisA diagramming and calculation technique for evaluating the implications of a chain of multiple options in the presence of uncertainty.
129Decision-Making TechniquesTechniques used to select a course of action from different alternatives.
130DecompositionA technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
131DefectAn imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced.
132Defect RepairAn intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component.
133Define ActivitiesThe process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
134Define ScopeThe process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
135Definition of DoneA team’s checklist of all the criteria required to be met so that a deliverable can be considered ready for customer use.
136Definition of ReadyA team’s checklist for a user-centric requirement that has all the information the team needs to be able to begin working on it.
137DeliverableAny unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
138DependencySee logical relationship.
139Determine BudgetThe process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.
140Develop Project CharterThe process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
141Develop Project Management PlanThe process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all plan components and consolidating them into an integrated project management plan.
142Develop ScheduleThe process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model for project execution and monitoring and controlling.
143Develop TeamThe process of improving competences, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.
144Development ApproachThe method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
145DevOpsA collection of practices for creating a smooth flow of delivery by improving collaboration between development and operations staff.
146Diagramming TechniquesApproaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding.
147Direct and Manage Project WorkThe process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.
148Disciplined AgileA process decision framework that enables simplified process decisions around incremental and iterative solution delivery.
149Discrete EffortAn activity that can be planned and measured and that yields a specific output. [Note: Discrete effort is one of three earned value management EVM types of activities used to measure work performance.] See also apportioned effort and level of effort.
150Discretionary DependencyA relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.
151Documentation ReviewsThe process of gathering a corpus of information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.
152Double Loop LearningA process that challenges underlying values and assumptions in order to better elaborate root causes and devise improved countermeasures rather than focusing only on symptoms.
153DurationThe total number of work periods required to complete an activity or work breakdown structure component, expressed in hours, days, or weeks.
154Dynamic Systems Development MethodAn agile project delivery framework.
155Early Finish DateIn the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. See also early start date, late start date, late finish date, and schedule network analysis.
156Early Start DateIn the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints.
157Earned ValueThe measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work. See also actual cost AC, budget at completion, estimate at completion EAC, estimate to complete ETC, and planned value PV.
158EffortThe number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component, often expressed in hours, days, or weeks. Contrast with duration.
159Emotional IntelligenceThe ability to identify, assess, and manage the personal emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of people.
160EstimateA quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome of a variable, such as project costs, resources, effort, or durations.
161Estimate Activity ResourcesThe process of estimating team resources and the type and quantities of material, equipment, and supplies necessary to perform project work.
162Estimate at CompletionThe expected total cost of completing all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete. See also actual cost AC, budget at completion BAC, earned value EV, estimate to complete ETC and planned value PV.
163Estimate CostsThe process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project work.
164Estimate to CompleteThe expected cost to finish all the remaining project work. See also actual cost AC, budget at completion BAC, earned value EV, estimate at completion EAC, and planned value PV.
165Evolutionary Value DeliveryOpenly credited as the first agile method that contains a specific component no other methods have: the focus on delivering multiple measurable value requirements to stakeholders.
166ExecuteDirecting, managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work; providing the deliverables; and providing work performance information.
167Executing Process GroupThose processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project requirements.
168Expert JudgmentJudgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.
169Explicit KnowledgeKnowledge that can be codified using symbols such as words, numbers, and pictures.
170External DependencyA relationship between project activities and non-project activities.
171eXtreme ProgrammingAn agile software development method that leads to higher quality software, a greater responsiveness to changing customer requirements, and more frequent releases in shorter cycles.
172Fallback PlanFallback plans include an alternative set of actions and tasks available in the event that the primary plan needs to be abandoned because of issues, risks, or other causes.
173Fast TrackingA schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. See also crashing and schedule compression.
174Feature-Driven DevelopmentA lightweight agile software development method driven from the perspective of features valued by clients.
175FeeRepresents profit as a component of compensation to a seller.
176Finish DateA point in time associated with a schedule activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current.
177Finish-to-FinishA logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.
178Firm Fixed Price ContractA type of fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount as defined by the contract, regardless of the seller’s costs.
179Fishbone diagramSee Cause and Effect Diagram.
180Fit for PurposeA product that is suitable for its intended purpose.
181Fit for UseA product that is usable in its current form to achieve its intended purpose.
182Fixed Price Incentive Fee ContractA type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount as defined by the contract, and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.
183Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment ContractA fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for predefined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases or decreases for specific commodities.
184Fixed-Price ContractAn agreement that sets the fee that will be paid for a defined scope of work regardless of the cost or effort to deliver it.
185Flow MasterThe coach for a team and service request manager working in a continuous flow or Kanban context. Equivalent to {Scrum Master}.
186FlowchartThe depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.
187ForecastAn estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.
188Forward PassA critical path method technique for calculating the early start and early finish dates by working forward through the schedule model from the project start date or a given point in time. See also backward pass.
189FrameworkA basic system or structure of ideas or facts that support an approach.
190Free FloatThe amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint. See also total float, critical path, near-critical activity, and near-critical path.
191Functional OrganizationAn organizational structure in which staff is grouped by areas of specialization and the project manager has limited authority to assign work and apply resources. See also matrix organization and projectized organization.
192Functional RequirementA specific behavior that a product or service should perform.
193Functional SpecificationA specific function that a system or application is required to perform. Typically represented in a functional specifications document.
194Funding Limit ReconciliationThe process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures.
195Gantt ChartA bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
196GradeA category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use but do not share the same requirements for quality.
197Ground RulesExpectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
198HistogramA bar chart that shows the graphical representation of numerical data.
199Historical InformationDocuments and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.
200Hoshin KanriA strategy or policy deployment method.
201Hybrid ApproachA combination of two or more agile and non-agile elements, having a non-agile end result.
202I-shapedRefers to a person with a single deep area of specialization and no interest or skill in the rest of the skills required by the team. See also {T-Shaped} and {Broken Comb}.
203IDEALAn organizational improvement model that is named for the five phases it describes: initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and learning.
204Identify RisksThe process of identifying individual risks as well as sources of overall risk and documenting their characteristics.
205Identify StakeholdersThe process of identifying project stakeholders regularly and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success.
206Impact MappingA strategic planning technique that acts as a roadmap to the organization while building new products.
207ImpedimentAn obstacle that prevents the team from achieving its objectives. Also known as a blocker.
208Implement Risk ResponsesThe process of implementing agreed-upon risk response plans.
209Imposed DateA fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a “start no earlier than” and “finish no later than” date.
210Incentive FeeA set of financial incentives related to cost, schedule, or technical performance of the seller.
211IncrementA functional, tested, and accepted deliverable that is a subset of the overall project outcome.
212Incremental Life CycleAn approach that provides finished deliverables that the customer may be able to use immediately. An adaptive project life cycle in which the deliverable is produced through a series of iterations that successively add functionality within a predetermined time frame. The deliverable contains the necessary and sufficient capability to be considered complete only after the final iteration.
213Independent EstimatesA process of using a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule, or other items.
214Influence DiagramA graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.
215InformationOrganized or structured data, processed for a specific purpose to make it meaningful, valuable, and useful in specific contexts.
216Information Management SystemsFacilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format.
217Information RadiatorA visible, physical display that provides information to the rest of the organization enabling up-to-the-minute knowledge sharing without having to disturb the team.
218Initiating Process GroupThose processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.
219InputAny item, whether internal or external to the project, which is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.
220InspectionExamination of a work product to determine whether it conforms to documented standards.
221Interpersonal and Team SkillsSkills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
222Interpersonal SkillsSkills used to establish and maintain relationships with other people.
223InterviewsA formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
224Invitation for BidGenerally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
225IssueA current condition or situation that may have an impact on the project objectives.
226Issue LogA project document where information about issues is recorded and monitored.
227IterationA timeboxed cycle of development on a product or deliverable in which all of the work that is needed to deliver value is performed.
228Iterative Life CycleAn approach that allows feedback for unfinished work to improve and modify that work. A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product.
229Kaizen EventsEvents aimed at improvement of the system.
230Kanban BoardA visualization tool that enables improvements to the flow of work by making bottlenecks and work quantities visible.
231Kanban MethodAn agile method inspired by the original Kanban inventory control system and used specifically for knowledge work.
232KnowledgeA mixture of experience, values and beliefs, contextual information, intuition, and insight that people use to make sense of new experiences and information.
233LagThe amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity. See also lead.
234Large Scale ScrumLarge-Scale Scrum is a product development framework that extends Scrum with scaling guidelines while preserving the original purposes of Scrum.
235Late Finish DateIn the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints.
236Late Start DateIn the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints. See also early finish date, late finish date, early start date, and schedule network analysis.
237LeadThe amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity. See also lag.
238Lean Software DevelopmentLean software development is an adaptation of lean manufacturing principles and practices to the software development domain and is based on a set of principles and practices for achieving quality, speed, and customer alignment.
239Lessons LearnedThe knowledge gained during a project which shows how project events were addressed or should be addressed in the future for the purpose of improving future performance.
240Lessons Learned RegisterA project document used to record knowledge gained during a project so that it can be used in the current project and entered into the lessons learned repository.
241Lessons Learned RepositoryA store of historical information about lessons learned in projects.
242Level of EffortAn activity that does not produce definitive end products and is measured by the passage of time. [Note: Level of effort is one of three earned value management EVM types of activities used to measure work performance.] See also apportioned effort and discrete effort.
243Life CycleThe process through which a product is imagined, created, and put into use.
244LogA document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, change, issue, or assumption.
245Make-or-Buy AnalysisThe process of gathering and organizing data about product requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase or internal manufacture of the product.
246Make-or-Buy DecisionsDecisions made regarding the external purchase or internal manufacture of a product.
247Manage CommunicationsManage Communications is the process of ensuring timely and appropriate collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.
248Manage Project KnowledgeThe process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project’s objectives and contribute to organizational learning.
249Manage QualityThe process of translating the quality management plan into executable quality activities that incorporate the organization’s quality policies into the project.
250Manage Stakeholder EngagementThe process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and expectations, address issues, and foster appropriate stakeholder involvement.
251Manage TeamThe process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.
252Management ReserveAn amount of the project budget or project schedule held outside of the performance measurement baseline PMB for management control purposes, that is reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project.
253Management SkillsThe ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals.
254Mandatory DependencyA relationship that is contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work.
255Master ScheduleA summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones. See also milestone schedule.
256Matrix DiagramsA quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
257Matrix OrganizationAny organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project.
258MethodologyA system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.
259MilestoneA significant point or event in a project, program, or portfolio.
260Milestone ScheduleA type of schedule that presents milestones with planned dates. See also master schedule.
261Mind-MappingA technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
262MobbingA technique in which multiple team members focus simultaneously and coordinate their contributions on a particular work item.
263MonitorCollect project performance data, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.
264Monitor and Control Project WorkThe process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting overall progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
265Monitor CommunicationsThe process of ensuring that the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met.
266Monitor RisksThe process of monitoring the implementation of agreed-upon risk response plans, tracking identified risks, identifying and analyzing new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.
267Monitor Stakeholder EngagementThe process of monitoring project stakeholder relationships, and tailoring strategies for engaging stakeholders through the modification of engagement strategies and plans.
268Monitoring and Controlling Process GroupThose processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.
269Monte Carlo SimulationAn analysis technique where a computer model is iterated many times, with the input values chosen at random for each iteration driven by the input data, including probability distributions and probabilistic branches. Outputs are generated to represent the range of possible outcomes for the project.
270Multicriteria Decision AnalysisThis technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.
271NetworkSee project schedule network diagram.
272Network LogicAll activity dependencies in a project schedule network diagram. See also early finish date, early start date, late finish date, late start date, and network path.
273Network PathA sequence of activities connected by logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram. See also early finish date, early start date, late finish date, late start date, and network logic.
274NetworkingEstablishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations.
275NodeA point at which dependency lines connect on a schedule network diagram. See also precedence diagramming method PDM and project schedule network diagram.
276Nominal Group TechniqueA technique that enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.
277ObjectiveSomething toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.
278OpportunityA risk that would have a positive effect on one or more project objectives. See also issue, risk, and threat.
279Organizational BiasThe preferences of an organization on a set of scales characterized by the following core values: exploration versus execution, speed versus stability, quantity versus quality, and flexibility versus predictability.
280Organizational Breakdown StructureA hierarchical representation of the project organization, which illustrates the relationship between project activities and the organizational units that will perform those activities. See also resource breakdown structure, risk breakdown structure, and work breakdown structure WBS.
281Organizational Change ManagementA comprehensive, cyclic, and structured approach for transitioning individuals, groups, and organizations from the current state to a future state with intended business benefits.
282Organizational LearningA discipline concerned with the way individuals, groups, and organizations develop knowledge.
283Overall Project RiskThe effect of uncertainty on the project as a whole, arising from all sources of uncertainty including individual risks, representing the exposure of stakeholders to the implications of variations in project outcome, both positive and negative.
284Paint-DripSee Broken Comb.
285Pair ProgrammingPair work that is focused on programming.
286Pair WorkA technique of pairing two team members to work simultaneously on the same work item.
287PairingSee Pair Work.
288Parametric EstimatingAn estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. See also analogous estimating, bottom-up estimating, program evaluation and review technique PERT, and three-point estimating.
289Path ConvergenceA relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one predecessor. See also path divergence, predecessor activity, and successor activity.
290Path DivergenceA relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one successor. See also path convergence, predecessor activity, and successor activity.
291Perform Integrated Change ControlThe process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating the decisions.
292Perform Qualitative Risk AnalysisThe process of prioritizing individual project risks for further analysis or action by assessing their probability of occurrence and impact as well as other characteristics.
293Perform Quantitative Risk AnalysisThe process of numerically analyzing the combined effect of identified individual project risks and other sources of uncertainty on overall project objectives.
294Performance Measurement BaselineIntegrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution. See also baseline, cost baseline, schedule baseline, and scope baseline.
295Performance ReviewsA technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.
296PersonasAn archetype user representing a set of similar end users described with their goals, motivations, and representative personal characteristics.
297PivotA planned course correction designed to test a new hypothesis about the product or strategy.
298Plan Communications ManagementThe process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communication activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project.
299Plan Cost ManagementThe process of defining how the project costs will be estimated, budgeted, managed, monitored, and controlled.
300Plan Procurement ManagementThe process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
301Plan Quality ManagementThe process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.
302Plan Resource ManagementThe process of defining how to estimate, acquire, manage, and utilize physical and team resources.
303Plan Risk ManagementThe process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
304Plan Risk ResponsesThe process of developing options, selecting strategies, and agreeing on actions to address overall project risk exposure, as well as to treat individual project risks.
305Plan Schedule ManagementThe process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
306Plan Scope ManagementThe process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project and product scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.
307Plan Stakeholder EngagementThe process of developing approaches to involve project stakeholders, based on their needs, expectations, interests, and potential impact on the project.
308Plan-Do-Check-ActAn iterative management method used in organizations to facilitate the control and continual improvement of processes and products.
309Plan-Driven ApproachSee Predictive Approach.
310Planned ValueThe authorized budget assigned to scheduled work. See also actual cost AC, budget at completion BAC, earned value EV, estimate at completion EAC, and estimate to complete ETC.
311Planning PackageA work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities. See also control account.
312Planning Process GroupThose processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
313PluralityDecisions made by the largest block in a group, even if a majority is not achieved.
314PracticeA specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools.
315Precedence Diagramming MethodA technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. See also node and project schedule network diagram.
316Precedence RelationshipA logical dependency used in the precedence diagramming method.
317Predecessor ActivityAn activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule. See also successor activity and summary activity.
318Predictive ApproachAn approach to work management that utilizes a work plan and management of that work plan throughout the life cycle of a project.
319Predictive Life CycleA more traditional approach, with the bulk of planning occurring up-front, then executing in a single pass; a sequential process.
320Preventive ActionAn intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. See also corrective action.
321Probability and Impact MatrixA grid for mapping the probability of occurrence of each risk and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs. See also risk.
322Procurement AuditsThe review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness.
323Procurement DocumentationAll documents used in signing, executing, and closing an agreement. Procurement documentation may include documents predating the project.
324Procurement DocumentsThe documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer’s Invitation for bid, invitation for negotiations, request for information, request for quotation, request for proposal, and seller’s responses.
325Procurement Management PlanA component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside of the performing organization.
326Procurement Statement of WorkDescribes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results.
327Procurement StrategyThe approach by the buyer to determine the project delivery method and the type of legally binding agreements that should be used to deliver the desired results.
328Product AnalysisFor projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, characteristics, and other relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured.
329Product BacklogAn ordered list of user-centric requirements that a team maintains for a product.
330Product Life CycleThe series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement. See also project life cycle.
331Product OwnerA person responsible for maximizing the value of the product and who is ultimately responsible and accountable for the end product that is built. See also Service Request Manager.
332Product Scope DescriptionThe documented narrative description of the product scope.
333ProgramRelated projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities that are managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
334Program ManagementThe application of knowledge, skills, and principles to a program to achieve the program objectives and obtain benefits and control not available by managing program components individually.
335Progressive ElaborationThe iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a project management plan as greater amounts of information and more accurate estimates become available.
336Project CalendarA calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities.
337Project Communications ManagementProject Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and ultimate disposition of project information.
338Project Cost ManagementProject Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so the project can be completed within the approved budget.
339Project Funding RequirementsForecast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.
340Project InitiationLaunching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project.
341Project Integration ManagementProject Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
342Project Management Body of KnowledgeA term that describes the knowledge within the profession of project management. The project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession.
343Project Management Knowledge AreaAn identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.
344Project Management OfficeA management structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques. See also {program management office}.
345Project Management Process GroupA logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases.
346Project Management SystemThe aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project.
347Project Management TeamThe members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. See also Project Team.
348Project Organization ChartA document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.
349Project Procurement ManagementProject Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.
350Project Quality ManagementProject Quality Management includes the processes for incorporating the organization’s quality policy regarding planning, managing, and controlling project and product quality requirements, in order to meet stakeholders’ expectations.
351Project Resource ManagementProject Resource Management includes the processes to identify, acquire, and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project.
352Project Risk ManagementProject Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, response implementation, and monitoring risk on a project.
353Project Schedule ManagementProject Schedule Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.
354Project Schedule Network DiagramA graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities. See also node and precedence diagramming method PDM.
355Project Scope ManagementProject Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
356Project Scope StatementThe description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
357Project Stakeholder ManagementProject Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.
358Project Team DirectoryA documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information.
359Proposal Evaluation TechniquesThe process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.
360QualityThe degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
361Quality AuditsA quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.
362Quality ChecklistsA structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.
363Quality Control MeasurementsThe documented results of control quality activities.
364Quality Management PlanA component of the project or program management plan that describes how applicable policies, procedures, and guidelines will be implemented to achieve the quality objectives.
365Quality Management SystemThe organizational framework whose structure provides the policies, processes, procedures, and resources required to implement the quality management plan. The typical project quality management plan should be compatible to the organization’s quality management system.
366Quality MetricsA description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
367Quality PolicyA policy specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area, it establishes the basic principles that should govern the organization’s actions as it implements its system for quality management.
368Quality ReportA project document that includes quality management issues, recommendations for corrective actions, and a summary of findings from quality control activities and may include recommendations for process, project, and product improvements.
369Quality RequirementA condition or capability that will be used to assess conformance by validating the acceptability of an attribute for the quality of a result.
370QuestionnairesWritten sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.
371RefactoringA product quality technique whereby the design of a product is improved by enhancing its maintainability and other desired attributes without altering its expected behavior.
372Regression AnalysisAn analytical technique where a series of input variables are examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a mathematical or statistical relationship.
373RegulationsRequirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable administrative provisions that have government-mandated compliance.
374Request for InformationA type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability.
375Request for ProposalA type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
376Request for QuotationA type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services. Sometimes used in place of request for proposal and, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
377RequirementA condition or capability that is necessary to be present in a product, service, or result to satisfy a business need.
378Requirements DocumentationA description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.
379Requirements Management PlanA component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
380Requirements Traceability MatrixA grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
381ReserveA provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated.
382Reserve AnalysisAn analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
383Residual RiskThe risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented.
384ResourceA team member or any physical item needed to complete the project.
385Resource CalendarA calendar that identifies the working days and shifts upon which each specific resource is available.
386Resource HistogramA bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods.
387Resource LevelingA resource optimization technique in which adjustments are made to the project schedule to optimize the allocation of resources and which may affect critical path. See also resource optimization technique and resource smoothing.
388Resource ManagerAn individual with management authority over one or more resources.
389Resource Optimization TechniqueA technique in which activity start and finish dates are adjusted to balance demand for resources with the available supply. See also resource leveling and resource smoothing.
390Resource RequirementsThe types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
391Resource SmoothingA resource optimization technique in which free and total float are used without affecting the critical path. See also resource leveling and resource optimization technique.
392ResponsibilityAn assignment that can be delegated within a project management plan such that the assigned resource incurs a duty to perform the requirements of the assignment.
393Responsibility Assignment MatrixA grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.
394ResultAn output from performing project management processes and activities. Results include outcomes e.g., integrated systems, revised process, restructured organization, tests, trained personnel, etc. and documents e.g., policies, plans, studies, procedures, specifications, reports, etc.. See also deliverable.
395RetrospectiveA regularly occurring workshop in which participants explore their work and results in order to improve both process and product.
396ReworkAction taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into compliance with requirements or specifications.
397RiskAn uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives.
398Risk AuditA type of audit used to consider the effectiveness of the risk management process.
399Risk CategorizationOrganization by sources of risk e.g., using the RBS, the area of the project affected e.g., using the WBS, or other useful category e.g., project phase to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.
400Risk CategoryA group of potential causes of risk.
401Risk Data Quality AssessmentTechnique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.
402Risk EscalationA risk response strategy whereby the team acknowledges that a risk is outside of its sphere of influence and shifts the ownership of the risk to a higher level of the organization where it is more effectively managed.
403Risk ExposureAn aggregate measure of the potential impact of all risks at any given point in time in a project, program, or portfolio.
404Risk Management PlanA component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.
405Risk MitigationA risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to decrease the probability of occurrence or impact of a threat.
406Risk RegisterA repository in which outputs of risk management processes are recorded.
407Risk ReportA project document developed progressively throughout the Project Risk Management processes, which summarizes information on individual project risks and the level of overall project risk.
408Risk ReviewA meeting to examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with overall project risk and with identified individual project risks.
409Risk SharingA risk response strategy whereby the project team allocates ownership of an opportunity to a third party who is best able to capture the benefit of that opportunity.
410Risk ThresholdThe level of risk exposure above which risks are addressed and below which risks may be accepted.
411Risk TransferenceA risk response strategy whereby the project team shifts the impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response.
412RoleA defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting, or coding.
413Rolling Wave PlanningAn iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
414Scaled Agile FrameworkA knowledge base of integrated patterns for enterprise-scale lean–agile development.
415ScheduleSee project schedule and schedule model.
416Schedule BaselineThe approved version of a schedule model that can be changed using formal change control procedures and is used as the basis for comparison to actual results.
417Schedule CompressionA technique used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.
418Schedule DataThe collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule.
419Schedule ForecastsEstimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is calculated.
420Schedule Management PlanA component of the project or program management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.
421Schedule ModelA representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce a project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts.
422Schedule Network AnalysisA technique to identify early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project activities.
423Schedule Performance IndexA measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value.
424Schedule VarianceA measure of schedule performance expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value.
425Scheduling ToolA tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method.
426ScopeThe sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. See also project scope and product scope.
427Scope BaselineThe approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure WBS, and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed using formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
428Scope Management PlanA component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and validated.
429ScrumAn agile framework for developing and sustaining complex products, with specific roles, events, and artifacts.
430Scrum BoardAn information radiator that is utilized to manage the product and sprint backlogs and show the flow of work and its bottlenecks.
431Scrum MasterThe coach of the development team and process owner in the Scrum framework. Removes obstacles, facilitates productive events and defends the team from disruptions. See also {Flow Master}.
432Scrum of ScrumsA technique to operate Scrum at scale for multiple teams working on the same product, coordinating discussions of progress on their interdependencies, and focusing on how to integrate the delivery of software, especially in areas of overlap.
433Scrum TeamDescribes the combination of development team, scrum master, and process owner used in Scrum.
434ScrumbanA management framework that emerges when teams employ Scrum as the chosen way of working and use the Kanban Method as a lens through which to view, understand, and continuously improve how they work.
435Secondary RiskA risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response.
436Self-Organizing TeamA cross-functional team in which people fluidly assume leadership as needed to achieve the team’s objectives.
437Self-Organizing TeamsA team formation where the team functions with an absence of centralized control.
438SellerA provider or supplier of products, services, or results to an organization.
439Seller ProposalsFormal responses from sellers to a request for proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization that, if accepted, would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement.
440Sensitivity AnalysisAn analysis technique to determine which individual project risks or other sources of uncertainty have the most potential impact on project outcomes, by correlating variations in project outcomes with variations in elements of a quantitative risk analysis model.
441Sequence ActivitiesThe process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.
442Servant LeadershipThe practice of leading through service to the team, by focusing on understanding and addressing the needs and development of team members in order to enable the highest possible team performance.
443Service Level AgreementA contract between a service provider either internal or external and the end user that defines the level of service expected from the service provider.
444Service Request ManagerThe person responsible for ordering service requests to maximize value in a continuous flow or Kanban environment. Equivalent to product owner.
445Siloed OrganizationAn organization structured in such a way that it only manages to contribute a subset of the aspects required for delivering value to customers. For contrast, see Value Stream.
446SimulationAn analytical technique that models the combined effect of uncertainties to evaluate their potential impact on objectives.
447Single Loop LearningThe practice of attempting to solve problems by just using specific predefined methods, without challenging the methods in light of experience.
448Smoke TestingThe practice of using a lightweight set of tests to ensure that the most important functions of the system under development work as intended.
449Source Selection CriteriaA set of attributes desired by the buyer which a seller is required to meet or exceed to be selected for a contract.
450SpecificationA precise statement of the needs to be satisfied and the essential characteristics that are required.
451Specification by ExampleA collaborative approach to defining requirements and business-oriented functional tests for software products based on capturing and illustrating requirements using realistic examples instead of abstract statements.
452Specification LimitsThe area, on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart that meets the customer’s requirements for a product or service. This area may be greater than or less than the area defined by the control limits. See also control limits.
453SpikeA short time interval within a project, usually of fixed length, during which a team conducts research or prototypes an aspect of a solution to prove its viability.
454SponsorA person or group who provides resources and support for the project, program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success.
455Sponsoring OrganizationThe entity responsible for providing the project’s sponsor and a conduit for project funding or other project resources.
456SprintDescribes a timeboxed iteration in Scrum.
457Sprint BacklogA list of work items identified by the Scrum team to be completed during the Scrum sprint.
458Sprint PlanningA collaborative event in Scrum in which the Scrum team plans the work for the current sprint.
459StakeholderAn individual, group, or organization that may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project, program, or portfolio.
460Stakeholder AnalysisA technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.
461Stakeholder Engagement Assessment MatrixA matrix that compares current and desired stakeholder engagement levels.
462Stakeholder Engagement PlanA component of the project management plan that identifies the strategies and actions required to promote productive involvement of stakeholders in project or program decision making and execution.
463Stakeholder RegisterA project document including the identification, assessment, and classification of project stakeholders.
464StandardA document established by an authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example.
465Start DateA point in time associated with a schedule activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current.
466Start-to-FinishA logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.
467Start-to-StartA logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.
468Statement of WorkA narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.
469Statistical SamplingChoosing part of a population of interest for inspection.
470Story PointA unit-less measure used in relative user story estimation techniques.
471Successor ActivityA dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule.
472Summary ActivityA group of related schedule activities aggregated and displayed as a single activity.
473SwarmingA technique in which multiple team members focus collectively on resolving a specific impediment.
474T-shapedRefers to a person with one deep area of specialization and broad ability in the rest of the skills required by the team. See also I-Shaped and Broken Comb.
475Tacit KnowledgePersonal knowledge that can be difficult to articulate and share such as beliefs, experience, and insights.
476TailoringDetermining the appropriate combination of processes, inputs, tools, techniques, outputs, and life cycle phases to manage a project.
477Team CharterA document that records the team values, agreements, and operating guidelines, as well as establishing clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
478Team Management PlanA component of the resource management plan that describes when and how team members will be acquired and how long they will be needed.
479Technical DebtThe deferred cost of work not done at an earlier point in the product life cycle.
480TechniqueA defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tools.
481Test and Evaluation DocumentsProject documents that describe the activities used to determine if the product meets the quality objectives stated in the quality management plan.
482Test-Driven DevelopmentA technique where tests are defined before work is begun, so that work in progress is validated continuously, enabling work with a zero defect mindset.
483Three-Point EstimatingA technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average or weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
484ThresholdA predetermined value of a measurable project variable that represents a limit that requires action to be taken if it is reached.
485Time and Material ContractA type of contract that is a hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts.
486TimeboxA fixed period of time, for example, 1 week, 1 fortnight, 3 weeks, or 1 month. See also Iteration.
487To-Complete Performance IndexA measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.
488ToleranceThe quantified description of acceptable variation for a quality requirement.
489ToolSomething tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result.
490Tornado DiagramA special type of bar chart used in sensitivity analysis for comparing the relative importance of the variables.
491Total FloatThe amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.
492Trend AnalysisAn analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.
493Trigger ConditionAn event or situation that indicates that a risk is about to occur.
494UnanimityAgreement by everyone in the group on a single course of action.
495UpdateA modification to any deliverable, project management plan component, or project document that is not under formal change control.
496User StoryA brief description of deliverable value for a specific user. It is a promise for a conversation to clarify details.
497User Story MappingA visual practice for organizing work into a useful model to help understand the sets of high-value features to be created over time, identify omissions in the backlog, and effectively plan releases that deliver value to users.
498UX DesignThe process of enhancing the user experience by focusing on improving the usability and accessibility to be found in the interaction between the user and the product.
499Validate ScopeThe process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
500ValidationThe assurance that a product, service, or result meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. Contrast with verification.
501Value StreamAn organizational construct that focuses on the flow of value to customers through the delivery of specific products or services.
502Value Stream MappingA lean enterprise technique used to document, analyze, and improve the flow of information or materials required to produce a product or service for a customer.
503VarianceA quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known baseline or expected value.
504Variance AnalysisA technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
505Variance At CompletionA projection of the amount of budget deficit or surplus, expressed as the difference between the budget at completion and the estimate at completion.
506VariationAn actual condition that is different from the expected condition that is contained in the baseline plan.
507VerificationThe evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or result complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition. Contrast with validation.
508Verified DeliverablesCompleted project deliverables that have been checked and confirmed for correctness through the Control Quality process.
509Virtual TeamsGroups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face.
510Voice of the CustomerA planning technique used to provide products, services, and results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project product development.
511WBS DictionaryA document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure.
512What-If Scenario AnalysisThe process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives.
513Work Breakdown StructureA hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.
514Work Breakdown Structure ComponentAn entry in the work breakdown structure that can be at any level.
515Work PackageThe work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration are estimated and managed.
516Work Performance DataThe raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work.
517Work Performance InformationThe performance data collected from controlling processes, analyzed in comparison with project management plan components, project documents, and other work performance information.
518Work Performance ReportsThe physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.